Saturday, December 7, 2019

Computer Business Intelligence

Questions: 1. What four characteristics determine the value of information and how? Give examples in your answer? 2. What are the definitions of a database, a database management system, and the relational database model and what are the advantages of the relational database model? 3. What is a data-driven website, why would someone use one, and what benefits does offer? 4. In what ways can a data warehouse help managers be more effective and why is that important for a business? In what situations is it best to use a data warehouse above other data storage options? 5. Read the article below and discuss the definition of business intelligence and what it means for a company. What are the negative impacts of BI and how does a database and data warehouse support BI? Be sure to give examples either from the text or outside sources to support any personal views you include in you? Answes: 1. There are four characteristics. Those are as follows: (Moody Walsh, 2005): Information is sharable: This is the most unique characteristics of the information. Information can be shared among people, systems or devices. Proportionate to use: The value of information depends on the use. How much the information use, it will increase its value. Information is easy to spoil: An information can be easily spoilt by proving wrong values to it. Proportionate to accuracy: The value of information also depends on accuracy. When an information carries higher accuracy, than information value is also high. 2. Database: A database is a composed decision of information. The information is ordinarily composed of framework components of reality in a way that supports procedure asking for information. For example, acting the accessibility to domains in resorts in a way that empowers finding a resort with openings (Date, 1981). Database Management System: This is a decision of usages that allows you to shop, change, and draw out the purposes of enthusiasm from a data source. There are different sorts of DBMSs, which go from little techniques that run on systems to broad strategies that run on unified servers (Larson, 1982). Relational Database Model: "Relational database model" is the fundamental information layout, which is used extensively around the globe for information storage space and taking care of. This blueprint is fundamental and have all the properties and limits expected to process information with the storage space capability (Harrington, 2002). Advantages of Relational Database Model: User friendly Flexible Precision Secured Data Independency Data Manipulation Language 3. Data Driven website: "Data-driven" site is one that uses a data source (database) for securing and collecting purposes of investment. It can use for several purposes, like contact details, email ids, images, client record, products' record, trade offers, and links, and so on (https://www.DBWebDoctor.com, 2015). Benefits: There are several benefits of data driven website. Those are as follows (Computerbusinessresearch.com, 2015): Confirming the material of the page could be conceivable without specific information or capacities The level of rate when the page chief takes off changes Have vital measures of versatility Diminished mistake rate 4. "Data Warehouse (DW)" gives a particular workplace, allowing associations to draw out information from resource systems, decontaminate or secure the conveyed information, and professor monstrous of information to be saved in it; a philosophy known as ETL. DW is regarded a champion amongst the most extremely reasonable choice help and association, perception creative headway that have appeared in the latest very much a long while (Wixom Watson, 2001). In light of present circumstances, the appreciation of DW benefits by associations has been underneath objectives (Ramamurthy, Sen Sinha, 2008). Along these lines, this investigation, generally centres around two concentrates: most importantly, it gives, shows, and examines the part and estimation of DW as a section or an auto holder for association brains, furthermore, it is really dissecting both business and particular issues and difficulties of DW change or use with present frameworks and mechanical progression (Watson, Goodhue Wixom, 2002). A DW workplaces provide for us general and joined information in multidimensional perspective. Close by the general and joined perspective of information, an information delivering workplaces moreover provides for us OLAP resources. These advantages help us in occupying and fruitful examination of information in a multidimensional space. This investigation achieves information theory and information examination (Tutorialspoint.com, 2015). 5. Business intelligence: "Business intelligence (BI)" is a developer driven technique for reviewing information and familiarizing workable information with help association people, association boss and flip side customers settle on more instructed association choices. BI incorporates a variety of instruments, ventures and strategies that enable associations to gather information from internal structures and outside resources, set it up for examination, make and run concerns against the information, and make reviews, dashboards and information visualizations to make the methodical results open to business decision designers furthermore helpful labourers (SearchDataManagement, 2015). Negative impact of BI: Negative impacts of BI are: It stockpiles the history Costly for small and medium organisation The system is quite complex The use is very limited The implementation process is very slow Data warehouse to BI: A data warehouse is a kind rational DBMS that are planned to request and research rather than for game plan dealing with. It by and large contains routing information in light of plan information, notwithstanding it can gain information from distinctive resources. It perceives examination measure of work from a course of action measure of work and engages a relationship to mastermind information from a couple of advantages (Docs.oracle.com, 2015). 6. In the above mentioned table there are few issues, like: Customer Id of individual customer is same for several people. So if we want to make this table better, we should use unique customer ID for each customer. In the last row, customer last name is missing. It is recommended not to use any null value. Null field can report an error. In the Zip column, first value is different from others. It may be an error, which should be rectified. Last name and first name is same for two different customer. So at the time of finding, it can give erroneous result. To make this table high quality informative table, we can follow some simple rules, like: There should not be any null value Value should be in sorted manner ID is a unique value, so it should follow its uniqueness. All the value should maintain the data length parameter. References com,. (2015). Data-driven website - Computer Business Research. Retrieved 12 March 2015, from https://www.computerbusinessresearch.com/Home/database/data-driven-website Date, C. (1981). An introduction to database systems. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. oracle.com,. (2015). Business Intelligence. Retrieved 12 March 2015, from https://docs.oracle.com/cd/B19306_01/server.102/b14220/bus_intl.htm Harrington, J. (2002). Relational database design clearly explained. New York: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. https://www.DBWebDoctor.com, T. (2015). What are Database Driven Web Sites? (Web Doctor Article). Dbwebdoctor.com. Retrieved 12 March 2015, from https://www.dbwebdoctor.com/article_database_driven_websites.asp Larson, J. (1982). Database management system anatomy. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books. Moody, D., Walsh, P. (2005). Measuring The Value Of Information: An Asset Valuation Approach. Melbourne: University of Melbourne. Ramamurthy, K., Sen, A., Sinha, A. (2008). An empirical investigation of the key determinants of data warehouse adoption. Decision Support Systems, 44(4), 817-841. doi:10.1016/j.dss.2007.10.006 SearchDataManagement,. (2015). What is business intelligence (BI)? - Definition from WhatIs.com. Retrieved 12 March 2015, from https://searchdatamanagement.techtarget.com/definition/business-intelligence com,. (2015). Data Warehousing Quick Guide. Retrieved 12 March 2015, from https://www.tutorialspoint.com/dwh/dwh_quick_guide.htm Watson, H., Goodhue, D., Wixom, B. (2002). The benefits of data warehousing: why some organizations realize exceptional payoffs. Information Management, 39(6), 491-502. doi:10.1016/s0378-7206(01)00120-3 Wixom, B., Watson, H. (2001). An Empirical Investigation of the Factors Affecting Data Warehousing Success. MIS Quarterly, 25(1), 17. doi:10.2307/3250957

Friday, November 29, 2019

5 Practical Tips for Better Essays

5 Practical Tips for Better Essays How to Improve Essay Writing Skills Many students face difficulties when dealing with their writing assignments. Alongside, they find it challenging to create a better essay than a previous one. The deal is that when you are writing essays regularly, create a set of rules or some kind of formula for all your next papers. So, how is it possible to improve essay writing skills? How to create not good but brilliant paper? Get to know 5 useful and practical skills for better essays. They will surely help you to complete papers and impress everybody. Read the Essays Written by Other People It seems to be a pretty good idea. Do you know why? Reading different books written by prominent authors can influence your writing style greatly, can`t it? The same is about reading other people`s essays. You will analyze what you like or dislike concerning this or that essay, and keep in mind what is good to use in your own paper. It would be great for you to have some time to read essays written by your peers, fellow-students and academics. Read different types of essays and of different learning areas, not necessarily only that one you are involved in. The broader your outlook is, the better your essay is. However, keep in mind that these essays should be like etalons or valuable examples for you to follow. Try to be critical and evaluate everything written there. Also, you can find pretty good essay examples in the broadsheet newspapers. It would be interesting for you to see how writers supported their ideas, provided arguments etc. All essays you are reading should be of the top-quality and balanced. The main goal of all this is to take the best that writers used and to learn some useful techniques which will help while writing an essay of your own. Build Your Vocabulary and Learn How to Use It Properly This will help you to develop a skill of expressing own thoughts clearly and concisely. A good essay is characterized by proper word choice and its economy as well. Readers prefer to read a condensed information expressed clearly rather than long and rambling points of view. If you to want to become a confident writer and impress everybody with your talking extremely to the point, you should always work on your advanced vocabulary enrichment. Of course, there are always a lot of new words to learn, and they surely help to convey a proper meaning accurately. It also enables you to be more persuasive in your essays. Ways to enrich your vocabulary: Subscribe to a ‘word a day’ email. You will get a new word each day, so create a separate folder in your inbox and put all messages with new words there. It will help you learn new words, have them all together and use them whenever possible. Read more. If you are reading, you are facing some new words. Don’t hesitate to look up those words in the dictionary. By doing this you will not only learn new words, you will also know how to use them in relation to the context. Reading different articles and books will not only add to your general knowledge level but widen your vocabulary as well. Learn prefixes, suffixes and roots. It may seem a little boring but you will benefit from this in a lot of ways. This will help you to learn a great number of new words and build them up. Create a vocabulary book. It is a usual thing for those studying a foreign language. So, why don’t you start a vocabulary book of your native tongue? Buy a notepad and put down there some new words with their definitions.   The process of writing everything down will increase your chances to memorize those words. It is also a good idea to divide all your vocabulary into sections, for example, words related to history, science etc. Make Up Your Mind Before Writing You are always told a plan and essay outline before writing. That really works. However, even before planning something, you need to know what argument and point of view you are going to discuss. Having come up with key ideas, you can build a plan for your essay right from the introduction to the conclusion. Try to make a short summary of what you intend to write in your essay, why it should make the readers interested and what are the goals of your assignment. Provide Opinions of Other People An essay is a good way to show how intelligent you are. So, do not miss the opportunity to quote some famous people and original sources concerning the topic you are working with. It is possible that you do not agree with this or that saying. So, do not hesitate to express your point of view. Different views and discussions show that you are able to perceive and analyze the information. In order to be well-prepared, create a separate page in your notebook for each subject you are studying, and write down there all prominent personalities, alongside with their achievements. It will be a quick way to refer in case of necessity. However, you shouldn’t quote too much. Don’t forget to express your point of view more. Don’t make the readers think that you are using other people`s sayings just to avoid providing your own thoughts. Grammar, Syntax and Punctuation You may not pay too much attention to these points while writing. However, these things do influence the whole picture of the essay you are writing. Actually, sentence structures show on your intelligence level. You know that the most important task is to write your essay properly and make it readable and understandable for readers. It is good to use sentences of different types and lengths. However, do not make them too long. Readers can lose their understanding, while they don’t need to read a sentence twice to grasp the meaning. Effective and accurate punctuation is also important here. If speaking about the tone of voice, it all depends on the essay type and your teachers` specifications. You can write your essay either in Passive or Active Voice. So, before start working on your paper, always check the requirements. Hope these tips were quite useful for your and they will help you to create only better essays all the time. Keep on trying!

Monday, November 25, 2019

Free Essays on Marcus Garvey

Marcus Garvey, was born in Jamaica in 1887 and is considered to be the father of the Black Nationalism Movement. During the early 1900’s, after reading Booker T. Washington’s Up From Slavery, Garvey pledged to organize Blacks throughout the world with an agenda of Black unity and pride. Moreover, Garvey achieved his greatest influence in the Untied States where there was a growing ambition among Blacks for justice, wealth, and a sense of community. From the time of World War I, up until the mid-1920’s, Gravey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association(UNIA) was the largest Black organization in African-American history. An estimated million men and women from the United States, the Caribbean, and Africa belonged to it. When Garvey arrived in the United States in March 1916, the Black populace was about to suffer a severe blow that would make them ideal candidates for Gravey’s movement. During the Reconstruction period that followed the American Civil War, many African-Americans lost faith in the American political process. They were promised many reforms and reparations that were never realized. However, World War 1 bought a new sense of prosperity to blacks because they felt they had a second chance to prove themselves as well as attain their piece of the proverbial American pie. Implementing Alger’s philosophy which states â€Å"...heroes prove themselves through inspired acts of heroism and devotion,† many blacks believed if they fought in World War I, it would deliver them their second emancipation1 . Nonetheless, after entering the war, African-Americans were subjected to segregation, indignities in training camps, and assigned to labor battalions far out of proportion to their skills and intelligence2 . In addition, black soldiers were told that when they return home they should not expect the same privileges they enjoyed aboard. When the war ended in 1919, the African-American community was outraged. Their soldiers were... Free Essays on Marcus Garvey Free Essays on Marcus Garvey Marcus Garvey, was born in Jamaica in 1887 and is considered to be the father of the Black Nationalism Movement. During the early 1900’s, after reading Booker T. Washington’s Up From Slavery, Garvey pledged to organize Blacks throughout the world with an agenda of Black unity and pride. Moreover, Garvey achieved his greatest influence in the Untied States where there was a growing ambition among Blacks for justice, wealth, and a sense of community. From the time of World War I, up until the mid-1920’s, Gravey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association(UNIA) was the largest Black organization in African-American history. An estimated million men and women from the United States, the Caribbean, and Africa belonged to it. When Garvey arrived in the United States in March 1916, the Black populace was about to suffer a severe blow that would make them ideal candidates for Gravey’s movement. During the Reconstruction period that followed the American Civil War, many African-Americans lost faith in the American political process. They were promised many reforms and reparations that were never realized. However, World War 1 bought a new sense of prosperity to blacks because they felt they had a second chance to prove themselves as well as attain their piece of the proverbial American pie. Implementing Alger’s philosophy which states â€Å"...heroes prove themselves through inspired acts of heroism and devotion,† many blacks believed if they fought in World War I, it would deliver them their second emancipation1 . Nonetheless, after entering the war, African-Americans were subjected to segregation, indignities in training camps, and assigned to labor battalions far out of proportion to their skills and intelligence2 . In addition, black soldiers were told that when they return home they should not expect the same privileges they enjoyed aboard. When the war ended in 1919, the African-American community was outraged. Their soldiers were... Free Essays on Marcus Garvey Marcus Garvey was born on august 17, 1887 in St. Ann’s bay, Jamaica. He attended school but because of his family situation of poverty he had to quit school and get a job as an apprentice in his god fathers print shop. It was at the print shop where he became aspired to become a Forman at the print shop, and after the earthquake in 1907 he went on strike with the workers for better pay even though he did not have to. As a result Marcus was fired and then picked up by the Jamaican government to be a printer. During this time their was a lot of problems in the country because most of the people could not vote and there was a large out cry for the right to vote and the only people who were able to vote were rich land owners. The people were mad at the british control of the country and wanted Jamaica to be and independent country. Because of this many Jamaicans went abroad to work for better money, and marcus decided to travel around the Caribbean. Garvey returned to Jamaica in 1 912, and left shortly after to visit his sister in London and also to further studies and become well-educated so that he could attend a university. While in London Garvey meet up with pan African movement leaders and other black freedom leaders. The leaders taught him about the rich history of the race. Although Marcus was born in Jamaica, he achieved his greatest success in the United States. As a young man, Marcus, political protest, advocating loyalty to the established colonial government. Garvey established the first American branch of the UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) in 1917 in the midst of the mass migration of blacks from the Caribbean to cities of the North. It was also a time for political awakening in the Africa and the Caribbean, to which marcus encouraged the export of his movement. In the era of global black awakening following World War I, Garvey became the best known, the most controversial, and for many the most attractive of... Free Essays on Marcus Garvey In 1914 Marcus Mosiah Garvey started the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in Jamaica. UNIA was started to help promote blacks in everyone’s eyes so that they wouldn’t have to be â€Å"at the mercy of white people.† (Kanet.org 7) Garvey wanted blacks to set up their own nation. In 1916, he moved the UNIA headquarters to Harlem, New York. Marcus Garvey was one of the most influential leaders of his time because he started the Universal Negro Improvement Association, advocated black unity, preached self-reliance, and was the black peoples’ spokesman. Marcus Garvey started UNIA because he wanted blacks to have pride in themselves and to be treated fairly. UNIA’s aim was shown through its motto: â€Å"One God! One aim! One destiny!† (Kasnet.org 9) The motto basically meant that all the blacks were aiming at one goal and they were destined to get it. Weekly meetings and night classes were held by UNIA to help blacks that had no high school education. Garvey also tried prompting educated blacks to volunteer their time to teach others. Not many helped because they didn’t want to be labeled as â€Å"Negro.† (Kasnet.org 6) Many weren’t proud of who they were because of how society treated them. As a result, they tried to escape the discrimination by ignoring who they were and where they came from. The main part of Garvey’s plan was to focus on self-reliance. Garvey didn’t want blacks to depend on whites; he wanted blacks to set up their own nation in Africa. Garvey developed a plan called the Liberia Plan. This plan was negotiated between UNIA and the government of Liberia to buy land and settle people from all around the U.S. The Liberian government first agreed, but before the settlers arrived they changed their minds. This sudden change was mainly done because the Liberian government became aware of the uproar that Garvey was causing in the U.S. with his preachings. In 1920, UNIA held its First International Co...

Friday, November 22, 2019

Online Rating of Professors Statistics Project Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Online Rating of Professors - Statistics Project Example Online rating of professors has grown popularity with the site RateMyProfessor.com. In the website, students are able to rate their professors in terms of the overall quality by which they are able to deliver their lessons, from the categories easiness, helpfulness, clarity, and prior interest in the subject. Professors are also given a chili-pepper icon when the reviewer thinks that the professor is â€Å"hot† in terms of physical looks. Some controversy has risen from the website as students and even professors devour the results as if it were an official ranking method. Some students even go to the extent of basing the schools and classes that they will take on the reviews made at the website. To make the ranking process â€Å"fair† to the professors, these members of the academe are allowed to respond to the feedbacks given to them through the â€Å"Professors Strike Back† portion of the website. Understandably, heated exchanges can occur as both students and professors defend themselves and their views. Some professors tend to be sensitive about the issues hurled against them while others choose to dismiss the ranking site entirely. All these aside, this paper wants to investigate if there are underlying factors affecting the overall quality rating of professors at Rate My Professor. As such, this study poses the following research question: RQ: Do differences in underlying factors affect the overall quality rating of professors?... A summary of these descriptive statistics are given in Table 1. Box plots reflecting the behavior of the data are also provided in Figures 1 to 5. Table 1. Summary of Descriptive Statistics. Descriptive Statistics Dept Division num easiness overall count 730 730 730 730 730 mean 46.24 2.2 34.27 3.327 3.712 sample variance 598.07 0.96 683.18 0.541 0.693 sample standard deviation 24.46 0.98 26.14 0.735 0.832 minimum 2 1 10 1.2 1.4 maximum 96 4 168 5 5 range 94 3 158 3.8 3.6 Figure 1 shows that most of the data from the graph is concentrated in the second quarter. Then to the third quarter, then evenly spread to the first quarter, and the fourth quarter. There does not seem to be any outlier in the graph. Figure 1. Box plot for the variable â€Å"Department† Based on Figure 2, there is no first quarter data from the graph. Either that it is insufficient to generate a first quarter, or the first quarter is so concentraated that the data could not show. It is most likely that the d ata is insufficient to generate a first quarter. Figure 2. Box plot for the variable â€Å"Division† Figure 3 shows that most of the data is concentrated on the first quarter. Then on the second quarter, then the third, then the fourth. The one thing that makes this graph interesting is the high amount of outliers in the graph, which is not seen from the other graphs. Figure 3. Box plot for the variable â€Å"Num† Figure 4 shows that most data are concentrated on the third quarter, followed by the last and third, and a really spreaded first quarter. There is a possibility that there is an outlier in the first quarter. Figure 4. Box plot for the variable â€Å"Overall† Figure 5 shows that data are mostly concentrated in the second quarter. And

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The Song of Roland exemplifies model knightly behavior. What qualities Term Paper

The Song of Roland exemplifies model knightly behavior. What qualities were most desired in a knight What were the worst crimes - Term Paper Example The soldiers of the time had special titles, Knights that did not only highlight their proclaimed ability but also set them above the normal citizens. The knights went through a rigorous recruiting and training process that thereafter resulted in brave individuals who substituted their personal interests with the interest of the state and their divine call. The special soldiers had a specific age group and originated from specific families in the kingdom thus implying that the title of a knight preferred extraordinary personalities who had the heavenly selection. The early societies had an effective way of coercing loyalty using religions. By claiming that knights had some deific anointment, the soldiers therefore obeyed their leaders and followed their commands without questioning. The religions made knights brave enough to offer their lives in order to protect their kings and immediate leaders. The loyalty ensured discipline, which kept the military coherent enough to protect their internal interest. Ordinary soldiers who exhibited extraordinary skills and behavior would also graduate from their elementary roles in the military roles to become knight. However, such occasions were rare thereby making the few who would appear saintly. The details of the battle of Saragossa as depicted in the song of Roland reveal a number of qualities that made knights. One such quality is bravery. All knights would at one time fight in major battlefields. The wars of the time, unlike the modern art of warfare used less technology and soldiers had to interact using the rudimentary weapons. Several soldiers could therefore die in the process a feature that demanded extreme bravery. Knights swore to substitute their individual interests with those of their kingdoms a feature that still is desired in the earlier societies. The leaders of the societies managed to use religion among other divine features to foster the interest of the societies by making their knights willing to sacr ifice themselves simply to make the societies safer. In a great show of bravery, Roland a young man leads the rear of an entire army with only a handful man. His strong enemy overpower and threaten to kill him but he still refuses to call for held an act that would appear cowardly. He later blows his horn not to seek help from the bigger legion but to inform his leader of their predicament. In addition to bravery, knights required both obedience and loyalty. The military of the times just as still is today had a specific bureaucratic structures with each higher position demanding great respect, obedience and loyalty from their juniors. The knights followed and acted on orders without ever questioning the sources provided they came straight from their immediate seniors. Acts of disobedience were rare and would often attract harsh public punishments to instil both fear and discipline on the remaining soldiers. Obedience and loyalty aided the leaders control their troops, which constit uted of different people from diverse backgrounds. Before recruitment, the knights went through a rigorous training which aided instil the specific values and societal virtues into them. Additionally, the use of religion helped develop holistic armies united by the common respect for their leaders and nation through committing oaths, which they would not dare betray. Roland is a young man but holds a higher rank in the military, he uses his

Monday, November 18, 2019

Questions on Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Questions on Management - Essay Example A case in point can be drawn from the lawsuit involving the Bank of America versus the City and County of San Francisco. In this case, the Bank of American seeks to annul ordinances passed by the city and county of San Francisco to protect consumers; the states are mandated by Congress to enact additional legislation especially with respect to consumer protection (Mitchell). The ordinances prohibit financial institutions (all banks, industrial loan companies and savings associations) from charging ATM fees to non-depositors. According to the cities, an ATM charge on non-depositors is punitive to consumers and weakens competition in the banking industry at the local state level (Bank of America). In this case, congestion in smaller banks makes the smaller banks to lose clientele to bigger banks that operate many ATMs in the city. Conversely, the Bank of America argued that the above-mentioned ordinances were disadvantageous as they impaired its operations. Ultimately, the Bank of Amer ica disputed the city’s contention because the city’s characterization of the ATM market was faulty. Unfortunately, the district court ruled in favor of the bank with the city falling on the losing end. According to the District Court, the savings clause in the Electronic Fund Transfer Act does not grant the cities permission to regulate fees charged on ATMs as a measure to protect the consumers. In addition, the court also ruled that Home Owners' Loan Act (HOLA) and Office of Thrift Supervision's (OTS) regulations gave savings banks the legal permission to charge ATM fees on consumers (Bank of America). †¢ Among the issues which have come to the fore are those concerning the attempts of states to enact laws which main purpose is to protect those who live within these states. The laws that have been enacted most often have tended to be overridden by the financial regulatory agencies in the name of implementing federal laws (Mitchell). Since the American Constituti on states that all the laws that are passed at the federal level are supreme to those passed at the state level, many of the agencies have used these laws as an excuse to frustrate any laws that have been passed at the state level for the benefit of the citizens. In contrast, these agencies have developed a culture of helping banks (especially national banks) to establish their dominance over their rivals at the state level. In fact, the lawsuit involving the Bank of America versus the City and County of San Francisco indicates clearly that the HOLA and OTS regulations override the ordinances. The District Court also ruled that the National Bank Act and the regulations of the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) are supreme to the ordinances passed by the city and county of San Francisco. Federal law annuls state law both directly (by stating preemption in explicit terms) and indirectly (by leaving no room for state regulatory control). A state law may also be annulled if it is established that its execution is in contravention of a preexisting federal law. In such cases, the federal law normally preempts the state law as the application of both laws is always deemed inadvertently impossible under the provisions of the constitution; therefore, it is clear that the federal regulations

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Urbanization: An analysis

Urbanization: An analysis 2.1 Urbanization 2.1.1 Current discourse in urbanization concept Urbanization is growing in most part of the world in line with technological discovery and human civilization. The rapid urbanization began at England’s industrial capitalism (Clark, 1998) at the end of 18th century and it spread rapidly after the use of coal for the industry primary raw material and a better transportation system (Hall, 1994). In developing world, urbanization started in 1950 after the Second World War (Crenshaw, 1991) and it is growing everywhere now especially in Africa and Asia. United Nation’s report indicated that by 2050, most population will be concentrated in cities and towns of developing countries. By this year, if Africa and Asia continue their current rapid growths, 50 percent of the population will live in urban areas and in 2010 it is predicted that the urban population is higher than the rural one (figure 2.1) Figure 2.1 Urban and rural population of the world, 1950 2030 (Source: Junaidi, 2006) There are four existing definitions for urbanization concept that mostly be the attention of urban planners. First, urbanization is seen as a process in which there have occurred transferring ideas and practices from urban areas into surrounding hinterlands. Second, urbanization is viewed as the increase both in behavior and problems considered to be urban types of rural area. The third, urbanization is related with the process of population concentration in which it is found the increasing ratio of the urban population to the total population (Phren. K. P, 1962) and the fourth, urbanization is seen as the combination of densification or the increase of density of people and building unit and the outward spread of people and built areas (Forman, T. www.cambridge.org). However, all of these definitions are interelated that all the urban planner needs to consider them in urban planning process integratedly. There are many related concepts involved from these in defining urbanization definition. From economic point of view, urbanization tend to connect it with labor division; demography related with density and population size, sociologic regarding to the way of living, and the last is geography from characteristics of the built up environment (Crenshaw, 1991). However, most analysts agree that demography is the basic criterion in differentiate urban and rural area (Clark, 1998, White, 1994, UNECA, 1968) because the population growth, including population density change, are the most quantified way to see the growth of an area. The most common example is United Nation that also uses the population size to standardize the urban localities and city among the nations. Mostly literatures argue that the driving force for urbanization is economic reason (Clark, 1998; Crenshaw, 1991, Jeremias, 1988), but there is a difference in the background of which. In developed world, rapid urbanization occurred because of industrial revolution, capitalism, and the invention of technology and a better transportation system while in developing countries, urbanization tend to occur because of economic imperial. The developing countries’ cities were previously prepared for supporting the economic interest of the powerful regime to earn money, to expand and control foreign trade, to create new markets for products and to acquire raw materials and cheap labor (Crenshaw, 1991). Many specific reasons for the driving force of urbanization and the traditional literature categorized them as push and pull factors. The push factor occurred because of the pressure of poverty problem and environment degradation in rural area. The poverty occurs because of limited job opportunities, limited land for agriculture and other natural resources limitation. The pull factor is related to the attraction of urban area for a better life. It is often related to a wider job opportunity, higher economic growth, better services and modern facilities (Baiquni, 2004). From this pull and push factors, it could be seen the disparities between urban and rural area are the main reason making more and more population concentrated in urban area. 2.1.2 Urbanization determinant The proximate determinants of urban growth can be grouped into three categories: firstly, the total population; secondly, rapid economic growth; and the third, percentage of built up area and areal extend (White, 1994). Population size The more population size of an area, the more urbanized it will be and it is positively related to the growth of urbanization (Rogers, 1982). The increasing of population size is caused by both migration and mortality. Migration flows occur because of employment availability in nearby cities and towns, ethnic connections in particular cities, the roads development and the accessibility of transportation (Connell et al, 1976). Some researches stated that the economic imbalance resulting wage disparities in urban and rural is a major reason for high levels of rural-to-urban migration. The size of population in urban area will be in line with the needs of water for these urban dwellers. Economic growth It appears that rapid economic growth related to urbanization (Becker Morrison 1988, Preston, 1979) that the urbanization level of an area can be marks by its rapid economic growth. Mostly in urban area people do not work in agriculture sector as in rural area, but in service and manufacture. The manufacture developments in urban area have triggered the employment opportunities for rural people to come, and a higher wage offered by manufacture sectors compared to the agriculture ones results in a better economic condition and quality of life. The quality of life will also influence to the water consumption quantity and quality. Percentage of built up area The urban characteristic can be seen from the density of people and the increase of building units. The sign is can be seen from the reduction of green spaces or the changing from low to high-rise apartment buildings. Other sign of urbanization is the city grows by expanding outward. Cities may also urbanize by rolling over suburbs, and suburbs urbanize by rolling over farmland or natural land (Crenshaw, 1991). The changing of landsape by built up environment will be related with the number of recharge area and wastewater quantity that will influence the groundwater. 2.2. Groundwater system on earth Groundwater constitutes about 98 percent of water on earth and both its storage and flow is one of the key elements of natural water systems (Foster, S, 1998). This fact makes groundwater an essential element to human life and economic activities. The details about groundwater hydrology are beyond the scope of this discussion, but a general overview will be presented. Figure 2.2. Hydrology Cycle Source: http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/stratplan2003/final/graphics/images/SciStratFig5-1.jpg Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and including one component of the earth’s water cycle. The water cycle is called the hydrologic cycle and it involves the movement of water as rain, snow, water vapor, surface water and groundwater. The earth’s water is constantly circulating from the earth’s surface up into the atmosphere and back down again as precipitation. When rain falls, a part of it infiltrates the soil. A proportion of this water will be taken up by plants while some will infiltrate more deeply, accumulate above an impermeable bed, saturate the pore space of the ground, and finally form an underground reservoir. This underground reservoir is called an aquifer, a place from which significant quantities of water can be abstracted for human needs. An aquifers productivity to store and transmit water are not the same, it depends on the fundamental characteristic of its constitute. Some of which are granular sediment such as sand, cement sediment such as sandstone and limestone, rock and fracture rock. The ground above an aquifer through is called the vadose zone; it is where the excess rainfall passed vertically. The level to which the ground is fully saturated is known as the water table. The nature, the occurrence of groundwater and the movement of water trough groundwater system is shown in the figure 2.2. 2.3 Urbanization and groundwater resources 2.3.1 Current Discourse Urbanization has been recognized as a trigger of social and environmental problems (Dogan Kasarda 1988, Timberlake 1985). The rapid expansion in groundwater exploitation of many industrialized nations occurred during 1950–1975 while in in most parts of the developing world it occurred during 1970–1990 (Zektser Margat 2003). The groundwater is estimated to provide at least globally 50% of current potable water supplies; 40% of the demand from industries, and 20% for water use in irrigated agriculture (Foster, 1998). These proportions vary widely from country to country and within countries depending on human activities on it. The groundwater is generally the main water resource to be tapped for urban dweller needs if a city has productive aquifers (Minciardi, 2007; Somma. 1997; Hiscock, 2002). This is because the groundwater has an excellent natural quality with significant savings in treatment costs compared to other surface water source. Other reason is because groundwater is a more secure source of water supply during long dry periods compared to the surface water resources (Clark, 1998, Ohgaki, 2007). Groundwater is also a suitable for public supply and independent private use, especially during the early stages of development (Foster, 1998). Two common methods for urban aquifer exploitation are by hand-dug wells and drilled boreholes (Foster, 1998). Hand-dug wells are usually less than 20 meters depth with diameters of 1 meter or more. In this method, the water is usually abstracted manually or by small pumps. The water supply boreholes are mechanically drilled, usually having smaller diameter than hand-dug wells, but much deeper ranging from 20 to 200 meters or more in depth. These two methods if developed in uncontrolled manner will cause groundwater depletion as it has occurred in many urban cities over the world (Ohgaki, 2007; Minciardi, 2006; Foster.S.S.D, 2001). 2.3.2 Urbanization impact to groundwater resources It has been identified that urbanization results in aquifer depletion, saline intrusion, and land subsidence, changing patterns and rates of aquifer recharge and affecting the quality and quantity of groundwater (Foster, 1998, White, 1994, Ohgaki, 2007, Minciardi, 2006). In this discussion the overall focus will be on the depletion of groundwater quantity related urbanization. Figure 2.2. Urban development and its impact to water resources Source: (Foster, 1998) From the figure above, it could be seen the urban development and its impact on the changing of urban groundwater. In the beginning, all cities evolve from small settlements; formal or informal. In this stage, the city dwellers can abstract groundwater using shallow well and boreholes as the groundwater is still abundant. As the infrastructure for wastewater either has not been adequate yet or less than the population needs, the wastewater starts discharging to the ground and starts to pollute the groundwater supply. When the town becomes city, the need of water supply is getting higher resulting from rapid urban population growth in contrast with the decline of groundwater supply. As the result, the well is deepened and there has been occurrence of land subsidence because of more urban dwellers do this deepening. The wastewater is still continuing to pollute the groundwater. The city then expands in line with the urbanization trend resulting to more water needed, more contaminant enters groundwater system and water table rises beneath the city. The urban dwellers start abandons their groundwater resources while the groundwater exploitation of hinterlands area as the alternate sources are getting higher. Because of the storage capacities of most aquifers are large, there is often a major time lag before the problems of groundwater depletion, water table rise and groundwater pollution becomes fully apparent (Foster, 1998). Further, there is increasing water supply scarcity with higher marginal costs for urban water supply. At the end, the traditional use groundwater that is low cost, minimally treated, and abundant for public water supply in urban areas is being threatened. Groundwater depletion The abstraction of groundwater has proved to be the cause of a qualitative decline in water levels. If abstraction is limited, the water level will be stabile at a new equilibrium. However, if occurs either a heavy or and concentrated groundwater withdrawal until it exceeds the local recharge, the water level may continue to decline over many years. As the result, there will be spreading of depress water level, land subsidence, water quality deterioration, sea water intrusion, up-coning and induced leakage of polluted water from the surface (Foster, 1998; Wangsaatmaja, 2006; Braadbaart, 1997) Mostly the problems and causes of aquifer depletion and contamination are clear while immediate solutions are not. General solutions involve some combination of increased recharge rate, reduced consumption rate, efficiency gains, and reduced or eliminated contaminant sources (Vo, 2007, Venkatesh Dutta, Foster.S.S.D, 2001). For example, reducing the velocity of runoff and providing time for recharge could enhance groundwater supplies significantly and at the same time reduce land-based sources of pollution to receiving waters. Land subsidence Land subsidence occurs for a variety reasons, but natural and manmade groundwater abstraction is one of the most contributor to this condition. The remedying efforts of the land subsidence impact involve a high economic cost (Foster, 1998). It is because differential subsidence damages roads, buildings, and other surface structures and it can seriously disrupt underground services such as water mains and water pipelines, sewers, cable conduits, tunnels, and subsurface tanks. In cities located on flat topography, subsidence can disrupt the drainage pattern of rivers and canals and can increase the risk of flooding. The land subsidence effects can be more serious in coastal areas because it can increase the risk of inundation (Hiscock, 2002). Saline intrusion The uncontrolled aquifer exploitation will impact on saline intrusion and it is usually occurs in coastal area. When the groundwater levels fall, the water flow direction change occurs. For thin and alluvial aquifers, this condition results in the formation of wedge shaped pattern and but in the thicker ones, salinity inversions often occur with intrusion of sea water in near-surface aquifer and fresh groundwater in deeper area. Once salinity has diffused into the pore water, its elution will take decades or centuries. Induced pollution Uncontrolled exploitation has consequences to contaminate the deeper aquifer. This induced pollution is caused by inadequate well construction, vertical pumping-induced, and sewage. Some rapidly developing cities have provided mains sewerage and generate large volumes of wastewater but this wastewater is normally discharged untreated or with minimal treatment to surface watercourses. It especially occurs in more arid climates (Anderson, 1987). 2.4 Urbanization Impact on groundwater management policy Although groundwater is the source of drinking water for most people, it is often ignored and taken for granted in urban planning program. The problem was expressed this way by the US Water Council in 1980: â€Å"The role of groundwater in water supply often has been slightenend in the past, one reason being believed that groundwater couldnot be adeqately evaluated in terms of avalibility, chemical quality, economics, or injuctive supply with surface water resources. However, substantial progress in groundwater analitical capability in recent years has made the resources more amanable to rational planning and management operation† (US Water Council in Grigg, 1996) Urban groundwater problems evolve over many years or decades as the result of slow the respond to most groundwater problem. The groundwater depletion and pollution problem are usually solved in incremental way by abandoning the shallow wells and replacing them with deeper boreholes to the aquifer (Grigg, 1996). However, this approach may only provide a temporary solution and if the urban planners continue this method, the groundwater supply will be in more stress condition. Therefore, the more comprehensive and sustainable groundwater planning and management approaches are needed to be developed (Tellman). 2.4.1 Groundwater Management Many literatures define groundwater management differently. Some emphasizes on the technical aspect such as engineering and hydrology, some are the process of managing and some others are the combination of them. However, the common similarity is on their objective that groundwater management is prepared to ensure that groundwater resources are managed in a fair, equitable and sustainable manner (Hiscock, 2002; Ohgaki, 2007; Minciardi, 2006;Venkatesh Dutta). Groundwater management can be defined as a number of integrated actions related to both natural and managed of groundwater pumping and recharge to achieve the long-term sustainability. California government in 2003 DWR Bulletin 118 2003 defines groundwater management as a set of activities including the planned and coordinated monitoring, operation, and administration of a groundwater basin or portion of a groundwater basin with the goal for long term sustainability of the resource. As the result, the groundwater management involves a number of engineering disciplines including survey and monitoring, geological interpretation, hydrological assessments, hydrogeological modeling, chemical and geochemical assessments and optimization. Groundwater management also deals with a complex interaction between human society needs and physical environment and it presents a difficult problem of policy design (Foster.S.S.D, 2001; Somma, 1997). For example, aquifers are exploited by human decisions for sustaining their lives and overexploitation cannot always be defined in technical terms, but as a failure to design and implement adequate institutional arrangements to manage people who exploit the groundwater resource. Common pool resources have been typically utilized in an open-access framework because of the characteristics of groundwater resources (Somma, 1997). When no one owns the resources, the users do not have any obligation to conserve for the future, and as the result, self-interest of individual users leads them to overexploitation. Groundwater management is a debated issue with very few examples of effective action on groundwater resources. However there some approaches that several studies concluded them as a successful groundwater methods, for example, sustainable groundwater development and management in the overexploited regions is treated by combining artificial recharge to groundwater and rainwater harvesting; management of salinity ingress in coastal aquifers; conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater; water conservation by increasing water-use efficiency; regulation of groundwater development.. Further, there also innovative methods of recharging the groundwater and storing water in floodplain aquifers along the river banks to enhance the ultimate irrigation potential from groundwater. The following four steps are essential for most groundwater management cases. Firstly, there must be regular and accurate assessment of actual groundwater use in both rural and urban areas to correlate with recharge and extraction. Secondly, expansion should be strictly monitored. Thirdly, separation of feeders for domestic and agricultural power and the fourth, ways must be explored to empower and entrust the communities to manage the groundwater uses. Development of groundwater management is usually begun by an assessment of groundwater problems and management issues, a compilation of groundwater management tools, an identification of action to address issues and problems, selection of the management plan and a discussion of implementation aspects of the plan. Mostly, the suitable groundwater management approaches are identified at the local water agency level and directly resolved at the local level. However, the State also has role in providing technical and financial assistance to local agencies for their groundwater management efforts. The Department publishes a regulatory framework for groundwater management to ensure that the groundwater resources are maintained and used in an orderly, equitable, and sustainable manner. If groundwater management is obeyed and the problem cannot be directly resolved at the local agency level, there is usually an additional actions such as enactment by local governments or decisions by the cou rts. 2.4.2 Sustainable groundwater management Groundwater is an important source of clean drinking water in many areas because of its characteristics, but mostly a sustainable management has not yet been established for this resource. Natural water bodies have become the place for storing human activities products, such as wastewater and other industrial pollution, causing little natural water storage capacity left. The sustainable groundwater management needs to involve a larger management system including the development of alternative surface water supplies, reallocation among economic uses of water, and regulatory limits on abstraction. Like other water resources management and other environment issues, all elements of active aquifer management must involve stakeholder participation and whole basin analysis. It means that sustainable groundwater management should take place on various levels, starting from the localized borehole owner and user to the regional aquifer, basin and catchment area. At the end, the groundwater development will much depend on management principles applied by Local authorities, Government and Inter Governmental development planning and management strategies. By taking appropriate measure, sustainable groundwater management development can be built. In urban planning practice these measures tend to reduce sewer overflows, improve the quality of treatment plant effluent and prevent falling water tables in areas around towns, cities, and the hinterlands. 2.4.3 Major approaches in sustainable groundwater management The literature generally literatures found that the approaches for sustainable groundwater management are divided into spatial and a-spatial approaches as below. The most common similarity in these approaches is that one method cannot stand alone but must be integrated and connected with other disciplines and other sectors. Integrating sustainable groundwater in spatial planning and management a.1) The use of `Hydrological Design Principles This approach involves zoning related to the catchment planning approach, the location approach, and buffering approach. The `Hydrological Design Principles as a basis for making spatial planning decisions or design of land use patterns is the most common approaches for groundwater management. The Catchment Planning Approach objectives are both to adjust land uses or activities with environmental requirements in the catchment area or drainage basin and to prevent peak discharges. This is implemented by allocating land use profiles to each catchment area and by taking account to maintain or increase the catchment areas’ water storage capacity. The attention to be paid is to both water quality and quantity aspects, which are to be managed with the most important goal for achieving an ecological balance with the land use activities. The Location Approach’s aims are to order the various land uses and activities within each catchment area so that the affect occurs is as little as possible to each of them. In this approach, the land uses that have greater demands on water quality are located upstream of more polluting ones, while the more vulnerable uses is located in areas of groundwater seepages. The clean land use activities are placed in the infiltration areas. The Buffering Approach is used to give chance the land uses with incompatible environmental requirements to co-exist. A well-known example at the local level is the hydrological buffering of natural sites from surrounding agricultural land. This can be achieved through appropriate design and management measures that can be implement in a relatively easy and quick manner. a.2) Integrating land use activities, groundwater systems and the environment The approaches are by water storage, habitat creation and natural water treatment combined with new urban development. In many places where the abstraction of drinking water causes damage to nature, water may be abstracted elsewhere instead, for example is in the hinterlands of that area. In some cases, groundwater abstraction should be stopped regarding to riverbank filtration. Water from the river can be pumped into the ground under the banks and later abstracted when it has been sufficiently filtered by passing through the sand and clay in the sub-soil. Raising storage capacity in the river basin through habitat creation, landscaping and establishing outdoor recreation areas are also other approaches for this method. The groundwater system had double function for human life. a.3) Ensuring enough room for water: Catch water where it falls It is mostly done in the areas around the main rivers or flood prone area. It can be in line with habitat protection because the raising the water storage capacity by lowering the ground level of the river or moving back the dikes back offer opportunities for nature development. The widening ditches and raising the drainage level can increase the water storage capacity. As the result, more room for water and the rainwater can be infiltrated into the soil instead of being drained away as quickly as possible to the sewer. An advantageous effect of giving water more room is the greater opportunity it presents to make use of natural filtration and water purification processes. a.4) Controlling subsurface contaminants load and ensuring sufficient clean water Water pollution problems can be partially minimized or controlled by delineating source protection zones around major groundwater catchment areas. On the other hand, there are some related approaches such as firstly; appropriate planning provisions or mitigation measures to reduce contaminants load in particular areas, especially where aquifer is highly vulnerable. Secondly, to moderate the subsurface contamination to acceptable levels by considering the vulnerability of local aquifers to pollution, land use planning to reduce potential pollution sources. Thirdly by selecting controls over effluent discharges and other existing pollution sources and the fourth is by planning waste water treatment or landfill disposal sites regarding to groundwater interests and impacts. Integrating sustainable groundwater in a-spatial planning and management b.1) Institutional management To improve groundwater management, a strong institutional framework is prerequisite. Regarding to groundwater characteristics, an ideal institutional framework should to include legislation to provide clear definition of water use rights that is separate from land ownership. It could be implemented through granting of licenses and tax for groundwater exploitation in a specified manner. Other approach is by regulating and supervising the discharge of liquid effluents to the ground, the land disposal of solid-wastes, and other potentially polluting activities with a need legal consent or planning approval. Some literatures also presented about the behavior change and prospectus in groundwater that is believed can be last longer than the technical approaches. b.2) Demand side management Groundwater management not only requires adequate assessment of available resources and hydrogeology by understanding of interconnection between surface and groundwater system, but also actions required for proper resource allocation and prevention of the adverse effects of uncontrolled development of ground water resources for short and long term. One of the important strategies for this is a-spatial sustainable management of groundwater by regulating the groundwater development in critical areas using demand side approach. Management of demand means managing efficiency of water use, interaction among economic activities that is adjusted with water availability. In demand side management, socio economic dimension plays an important role that it also involves the managing the users of water and land. It is because the regulatory interventions in demand side management such as water rights and permits and economic tools of water pricing will not be successful if the different user groups are not fully involved. As the result, for achieving effective management of groundwater resources, there is a need to create awareness among the different water user groups and workout area specific plans for sustainable development. From among these two characteristics, it can be concluded that there are two emerging broad types of management approaches for groundwater. Firstly, approaches including tools such as power pricing, subsidies for efficient technologies, economic policies discouraging water intensive crops, etc. Secondly, approaches dealing with specific aquifers on the basis of command and control management through a resource regulator. Whichever approach is adopted, the development and management of these resources must be based on an adequate knowledge of a clear comprehensive situation of groundwater aquifer system and its replenishment. Contents CHAPTER II 1 URBANIZATION AND GROUNDWATER PLANNING 1 2.1 Urbanization 1 2.1.1 Current discourse in urbanization concept 1 2.1.2 Urbanization determinant 3 a) Population size 3b) Economic growth 3c) Percentage of built up area 42.2. Groundwater system on earth 4 2.3 Urbanization and groundwater resources 5 2.3.1 Current Discourse 52.3.2 Urbanization impact to groundwater resources 6a) Groundwater depletion 8b) Land subsidence 9c) Saline intrusion 9d) Induced pollution 92.4 Urbanization Impact on groundwater management policy 9 2.4.1 Groundwater Management 102.4.2 Sustainable groundwater management 122.4.3 Major approaches in sustainable groundwater management 12a) Integrating sustainable groundwater in spatial planning and management 13a.1) The use of `Hydrological Design Principles 13a.2) Integrating land use activities, groundwater systems and the environment 13a.3) Ensuring enough room for water: Catch water where it falls 14a.4) Controlling subsurface contaminants load and ensuring sufficient clean water 14b) Integrating sustainable groundwater in a-spatial planning and management 15b.1) Institutional management 15b.2) Demand side management 15